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For pgms the smelting and refining scope starts with the pgm flotation concentrate as an input and ends at the point where the i

Flotation Drying and smelting in electrical furnace Air/O 2 Base Metal Refiningblown Converters Sulphur ... Base Metal Refining (incl. Magnetic Concentration for some players) Precious Metal Refining •PGMs •Gold Incorporating PGMs into various end applications ... •Ni laterite unsuitable due to copper contamination in the PGM concentrate

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  • An overview of Southern African PGM smelting
    An overview of Southern African PGM smelting

    The most economically important of the PGMs are platinum, palladium, and rhodium, with ruthenium, iridium, and osmium being less prevalent and less in demand. Gold, though it is a precious metal, is not one of the PGMs although it is often lumped together with the PGM content when talking about the valuable products from PGM smelting

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  • What is your PGM concentrate worth?
    What is your PGM concentrate worth?

    The conventional processing route for PGM concentrates Flotation concentrates from PGM mining operations are treated through several steps to extract and separate the valuable metals. A typical flowsheet is given in Figure 1 and consists of the main processes of smelting, base metal refining and precious metal refining. Smelting contains the

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  • DC arc smelting of difficult PGM-containing feed materials
    DC arc smelting of difficult PGM-containing feed materials

    the platinum group metals in a molten sulphidic matte phase in the furnace. Furthermore, the quantity of chromium oxide in the feed materials is controlled in order to avoid the build-up of high-melting chromite spinels in the furnace. Mintek has developed an alternative smelting process for the production of platinum group metals (PGMs).1,2

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  • The PGM flotation predictor: Predicting PGM ore
    The PGM flotation predictor: Predicting PGM ore

    Bushveld PGM ores with typical feed grades of less than 10 g/t. The concept has been implemented as a VBA module within Micro-soft Excel, which can accept PGM mineralogical data from any of the current automated SEM platforms. 2. Producing an input file for the flotation predictor The ‘‘grains table’’ produced by the automated SEM system is

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  • OUTOTEC SMELTING SOLUTIONS FOR THE PGM INDUSTRY
    OUTOTEC SMELTING SOLUTIONS FOR THE PGM INDUSTRY

    smelting of nickel. The PGMs therefore follow nickel into the matte phase during smelting and conversion procedures, and total recovery of PGMs exceeds 99 per cent. During matte separation by controlled cooling and solidification, gold and the PGMs are almost entirely concentrated in

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  • Spinel Removal from PGM Smelting Furnaces
    Spinel Removal from PGM Smelting Furnaces

    Spinel Removal from PGM Smelting Furnaces A.R. Barnes and A.F. Newall Heat Flow CC, Lanseria, South Africa ... the amount of UG2-originating concentrate fed to the smelting unit, or to modify the flotation process to minimise the amount of chrome contained in the concentrate. This results in a lower recovery of PGMs in the concentrate, and a

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  • Stirred milling—new comminution technology in the
    Stirred milling—new comminution technology in the

    product, final flotation concentrate, and final tailings Table I PGM association data for a typical UG2 plant composite set, showing preponderance of incompletely liberated PGMs in the tailings; these results are slightly atypical as the majority of PGMs are recovered as composites or locked particles associated with sulphides in the concentrate

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  • An overview of PGM Smelting in Zimbabwe – Zimplats
    An overview of PGM Smelting in Zimbabwe – Zimplats

    The wet concentrate is discharged from the back-mixer onto a cake disintegrator. The disintegrator serves the purpose of distributing feed evenly, and breaks concentrate further to feed into the incoming hot-gas air stream. The concentrate is conveyed up the drying column with a hot air stream, and concentrate is dried on the way

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  • PGM Ore Processing
    PGM Ore Processing

    Jan 06, 2016 PGM Ore Processing. The concept of project value tracking and its application in project planning at Anglo Platinum. Flotation process optimization through frequent in-line grade measurement as an alternative to sampling surveys that deliver outdated results. Case studies of simultaneous mining and mineral processing optimization applied to

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  • Geometallurgy of cobalt ores: A review - ScienceDirect
    Geometallurgy of cobalt ores: A review - ScienceDirect

    Jan 01, 2021 This paper starts by reviewing the main geometallurgical properties of cobalt ores, with a particular focus on ore mineralogy which exerts a significant control over ore processing behaviour and cobalt extraction, such as the oxidation state, i.e. oxide or sulphides which drives the selection of the processing route (leaching vs flotation), and

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  • Chapter 3 A description of the metal cycles - ScienceDirect
    Chapter 3 A description of the metal cycles - ScienceDirect

    Jan 01, 2005 Chapter 3 A description of the metal cycles The systemic perspective of industrial ecology calls for a shift from dealing with isolated, relatively simple systems to managing complex, interdependent systems. Quantitative models are essential in acquiring insight in the behaviour of such systems, and thus for advancing industrial ecology

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  • (PDF) Extractive Metallurgy of Copper | Marlene Sarahi
    (PDF) Extractive Metallurgy of Copper | Marlene Sarahi

    Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers

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  • Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC
    Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC

    Executive Summary ii Non Ferrous Metals Industries recovery, mercury abatement and effluent treatment/water re-use. The BAT conclusions contained in all of the chapters should be consulted for a complete understanding

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  • (PDF) ERA-MIN: The European network (ERA-NET) on non
    (PDF) ERA-MIN: The European network (ERA-NET) on non

    Non-energy raw materials are vital for the EU's economy, and for the development of environmentally friendly technologies. The EU is the world's largest consumers of non-energy minerals, but it

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  • 112th AIME Annual Meeting Technical Program with Abstracts
    112th AIME Annual Meeting Technical Program with Abstracts

    10:00 a.m. SUITABILITY OF THE OUTOKUMPU DIRECT BLISTER SMELTING PROCESS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF COPPER CONCENTRATES: Dale W. Rodolff, Keith B. Murden, Jussi Asteljoki, OutoklDDPU OY, Engineering Division, 02210 Espro 22, Finland Dutokumpu produced bl1ster copper dfrectly from concentrate in one step in the pilot flash smelting fumace for the first

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  • SGA2015 Proceedings-Vol4 PDF | PDF | Clastic Rock | Gypsum
    SGA2015 Proceedings-Vol4 PDF | PDF | Clastic Rock | Gypsum

    The 13th biennial meeting is organized by the CNRS, and a group of french, Belgian and German universities. The theme for this 13th edition is Mineral resources in a Sustainable World The SGA was founded in 1965 in Heidelberg and the 2015 SGA biennial

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  • EGS Book Minerals | PDF | Mining | Metals
    EGS Book Minerals | PDF | Mining | Metals

    Further purification is accomplished by flotation (for scheelite) or by high-intensity magnetic separation (for wolframite). Use of the product The melting point of tungsten (3420 C) is the highest among metals and it resists corrosion. It is a good conductor of electricity and acts as a catalyst in chemical reactions

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  • Mintek annual report 2014 by Martine Whitehead - Issuu
    Mintek annual report 2014 by Martine Whitehead - Issuu

    Sep 16, 2014 PGMs Design and optimisation of integrated comminution, flotation and smelting circuits. Design and optimisation of base metal recovery and PGM refining circuits. ConRoast smelting

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  • PPRust: from concept to completion by Genevieve Correia
    PPRust: from concept to completion by Genevieve Correia

    Oct 25, 2013 Froth flotation: A separation process used in the production of platinum group metals where the varying surface properties of the minerals in the concentrate

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  • (Darling, Peter (Eds.) ) SME Mining Engineering Han | PDF
    (Darling, Peter (Eds.) ) SME Mining Engineering Han | PDF

    The high capital cost and long life of Total material moved, t/d 280,000 1.4 million a mining operation necessarily lead to relatively lower rates Annual copper production, 320,000 in 1.1 million in concentrate, of technological change, broadly shared with other industries t/yr concentrate 300,000 million in cathodes with similar characteristics

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  • (PDF) Mining Chemicals HANDBOOK Revised Edition
    (PDF) Mining Chemicals HANDBOOK Revised Edition

    Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers

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  • Annual Report (foreign Private Issuer) (40-f)
    Annual Report (foreign Private Issuer) (40-f)

    Aug 31, 2019 PLG Platinum Group Metals Ltd New Annual Report (foreign Private Issuer) (40-f) U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20549 FORM 40-F [ ] Registration statement pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or [&nbs

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